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Power of Future 2017

Analysis of Li-ion LFP/C Second Life Battery Ageing Performance

Egoitz Martinez-Laserna, Íñigo Gandiaga, Elixabet Sarasketa-Zabala, Mattin Lucu, Igor Villarreal. "Analysis of Li-ion LFP/C Second Life Battery Ageing Performance", Power of Future 2017, Vitoria-Gateiz, 2-3 Julio.


Electric vehicles (EV) are considered one of the most promising solutions towards the decarbonisation of the transportation sector, and Li-ion batteries are one of the key technologies to enable the technoeconomical viability of mass-adopted EVs. Anyhow, typically Li-ion batteries still preserve 70% - 80% of their initial capacity when retired from EV use [1]. Such batteries, no longer useable for electromobility applications, would still be capable to provide energy storage services in other lessdemanding applications, in which battery performance, volume and weight boundaries were not so critical.
The topic of battery reuse has been addressed since the appearance of the first commercial EV, and several studies evaluated the economic viability of the so-called second life battery usage [2]. Reusing EV batteries provide an alternative revenue stream for a product that otherwise would be at disposal stage. This fact is increasingly getting the attention of important Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) like Nissan-Renault, BMW, Tesla or Daimler. The possibility to reuse this significant amount of batteries depicts a great opportunity not only for automotive industry but also to other industry players. In order to ensure the economic and environmental profitability of second life batteries, battery performance aftertheir automotive retirement would be crucial. Nevertheless, most of the publications presented to date field rarely emphasized on battery performance, and very few address battery ageing aspects [3,4].
The present paper focuses on the experimental evaluation of EV second life battery performance, addressed considering a power smoothing application for a grid-scale photovoltaic plant [5]. Cell levelbattery capacity fade and DC internal resistance increase were evaluated to analyse the suitability of such second life batteries to be implemented on the aforementioned application. In addition, the effects of cell-to-cell variability are also studied at the stack level. Heterogeneous stacks were built, each of them being composed of three cells connected in series. The goal was to address how the cell-to-cell heterogeneity could affect energy storage system (ESS) performance and, in consequence,
the second life battery degradation.


  • Li-ion Battery
  • Energy Storage
  • Second Life
  • Battery Ageing
  • Electric Vehicle



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